Horace: Ode i.4

Spring, and the bitter winter thaws as west winds warm the earth,
…………….and boats are dragged from storage to the shore.
The cows aren’t cooped up in their stalls, or farmer by his hearth;
…………….the white fields shine with ice and frost no more.

Venus leads out her chorus line, a low moon overhead;
…………….the Nymphs and lovely Graces, joining hands,
skip lightly, foot to foot, in time, while Vulcan’s fires are fed
…………….by huge Cyclopes at his stern commands.

Horace: Ode i.3

……….May Venus guide you as you go,
with help and light from Helen’s starry brothers;
……….may Aeolus send one wind to blow
up from Calabria, and still the others,

……….so that, good ship, you can repay
the debt you owe us all. Release him whole
……….and hale in Attica, I pray,
and safeguard Virgil, who is half my soul.

……….He had a heart encased in oak
and triple bronze, whoever first set sail ………………..……….10
……….on the fierce sea in a frail bark
with no fear of the hurtling southern gale

Horace: Ode i.2

Enough! We’ve had enough of the snow and raking
hail hurled by the Father, and of his ruddy
right hand striking the sacred hilltops, striking
…………………fear in the city,

fear in the world, in dread at the old disaster,
when Pyrrha wept at the heavens’ shocking signs,
and Proteus drove his flocks to a new pasture,
…………………the Apennines,

and, schooling through the elmtops, fish were snared
in limbs where doves had lately kept their nests,…………………… 10
while, out at sea, the deer went splashing scared
…………………through rising crests.

Archilochus 122

No more surprises now, no stunning miracles, no thought
unthinkable, now that Heaven’s father Zeus has wrought
sheer midnight at high noon, and blacked the brilliant sun,
its shining stanched, and fear and trembling fell on everyone.
From now on no occurrences, no worries or wild hopes
are past belief; from now on there’s no grounds for shock or wonder,
not if you see the dolphins crop the mountains and treetops,
while woodland creatures graze each oceanic glen and copse,
the dolphins’ home, and frisk with pleasure in the breakers’ thunder.

Translating Pindar

It’s a truth universally acknowledged–or if it isn’t it should be–that the old debate between literal and free translation has lost currency, that the only opposition worth discussing is between foreignizing and domesticating translation styles. Friedrich Schleiermacher gave this dichotomy its Ur-expression when he claimed that a domesticating translator “brings the writer towards the reader,” while a foreignizing translator “brings the reader towards the writer.” Schleiermacher says that the two styles don’t mix, that you have to do it all one way, or all the other, but I don’t agree. I want to suggest that, while poems with a more or less familiar sort of lyricism may be well enough served by a foreignizing translation style, a more culturally specific, less transferable sort of poem demands a smoother, more naturalizing style if it is to have any chance of connecting in its new context.

Between Irony and Optimism: A Review of Ned Balbo’s Upcycling Paumanok

The first question a reader of Ned Balbo’s Upcycling Paumanok (Measure Press, 2016) will most likely ask is, “Upcycling?!” Balbo makes us wait until the penultimate, and, as it happens, title poem for the explanation:

“Upcycling 2.0,” a plan requiring

what we throw away to serve some purpose,
trash not just recycled but improved,
suburbia changed, transformed to paradise.

Ibycus 286

…..In spring, the Cretan quinces grow
…..flowering by the streams that flow
…..irriguous where the virginal
…..gardens of the Maidens are, and all
the vines increase and twine their shade above
the blossoms on the grapes. But for me love
…..never at any season sleeps–
…..like Thracian Boreas, when he sweeps
…..crackling with lightning and wild fire
from the Cyprian in fits of mad desire,
…..and scorching, murky, shameless, shoots
…..and shudders my heart at the very roots.

…..ἦρι μὲν αἵ τε Κυδώνιαι
…..μηλίδες ἀρδόμεναι ῥοᾶν
…..ἐκ ποταμῶν, ἵνα Παρθένων
…..κῆπος ἀκήρατος, αἵ τ᾿ οἰνανθίδες

Catullus 51

The equal of a god that man appears,
better than gods, if it’s not blasphemy,
who sits across from you, and stares, and hears
continually

your lovely laughter, which, in my despair,
siphons my senses; soon as I look upon
you, Lesbia, I’m dumb, and don’t know where
my voice has gone;

my tongue grows heavy, underneath my skin
a thin flame drips, my ears ring with a bright
and tinny sound, and my eyes are veiled within
a two-fold night.

Free time, Catullus, that’s what’s killing you!
Free time fuels your fidgeting and your flings.
Free time has leveled prosperous cities, too,
and mighty kings.

Sappho 31

(previously published in Agni 83)

He seems like the gods’ equal, that man, who
ever he is, who takes his seat so close
across from you, and listens raptly to
your lilting voice

and lovely laughter, which, as it wafts by,
sets the heart in my ribcage fluttering;
as soon as I glance at you a moment, I
can’t say a thing,

and my tongue stiffens into silence, thin
flames underneath my skin prickle and spark,
a rush of blood booms in my ears, and then
my eyes go dark,